A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chainsynthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units [-CH2-CH(CN)-] Acrylic fibers are produced by two basic methods of spinning (extrusion), dryand wet. End uses of acrylic fibers include floor coverings, blankets, and apparel uses such as suitings, pile fabrics, coats, collars, linings, dresses, and shirts.


The attraction of gases, liquids, or solids to surface areas of textile fibers, yarns, fabrics, or any material.


The porosity or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficacy of various types of air filters. It also influences the warmth or coolness of a fabric.


A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. In this process, the fibers are drafted to appropriate sliver size, then fed to the air jet chambers where they are twisted, first in one direction, then in the reverse direction in a second chamber. They are stabilized after each twisting operation.


  • Long, fine hair from Alpaca sheep.
  • A fabric from alpaca fibers or blends, (originally a cotton cloth with alpaca filling) that is used for dresses, coats, suits, and sweaters. It is also used as a pile lining for jackets and coats.


  • The hair of the Angora goat. The long, fine fibers are so smooth and soft that they must be combined with other fibers in weaving.
  • The hair of the Angora rabbit. The fine, lightweight hair is warm, and it is often blended with wool to decrease price and to obtain novelty effects in weaving. By law, the fiber must be described as Angora rabbit hair.


Fibers of animal origin such as wool, alpaca, camel hair, and silk.


A design made separately and then sewn on a cloth or garment.


The application of latex or adhesive to the back of a carpet to anchor the tufts, usually followed immediately by addition of a secondary backing material such as woven jute or non woven polypropylene.


A material with an extra warp or filling added for weight and warmth. Satin-weave and twill-weave constructions are frequently used in the design of backed cloth because they are relatively resistant to the passage of air.


  • A general term for any system of yarn which interlaces on the back of a textile material.
  • A knit or woven fabric or plastic foam bonded to a face fabric.
  • A knot or woven fabric bonded to a vinyl or other plastic sheet material.


A solution composed of varying amounts of cornstarch, China clay, talc, and tallow that are applied to the back side of low-grade, low-cost cloth to change its hand, improve its appearance, and increase its weight.


Fiber used for medical applications, socks, shoe liners, etc., in which bactericides are introduced directly into the fiber matrix as opposed to fiber simply having a bactericidal finish applied.


A bag, sack, square or oblong box, or package into which silk, staple fibers, or tow are compressed. The common shipping and storage package for these fibers.


Bamboo has superior breathable, cool and soft properties. Combined with cotton and lycra, bamboo clothing feels like a new skin, it is that comfortable. The soft and delicate properties make it perfect for babies and children’s clothing.


Adjacent stripes of varying width used to represent alpha-numeric characters. These permit rapid reading by means of electronic scanners.


In coated fabrics, the underlying substrate


The weight of a unit area of fabric. Examples are ounces per square yard and grams per square centimeter.


In this knit construction, purl and plain loops are combined with a preponderance of purl loops in the pattern courses to give a basket-weave effect.


A variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and filling threads are woven side by side to resemble a plaited basket. Fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance and are used for such things as monk’s cloth and drapery fabrics.


A double-faced fabric woven with a tightly twisted spun warp and two sets of soft spun filling yarns. The fabric is thick and warm and its filling yarns are frequently napped to produce a soft surface. Today’s blankets are made of spun polyester, acrylic, or polyester/cotton blends.


  • A sheer, woven, mercerized fabric of combed cotton or polyester/cotton resembling nainsook, only finer, with a lengthwise streak.
  • A rayon fabric decorated with dobby woven striped and Jacquard florals.
  • A smooth, fine, woven fabric, lighter that challis and very similar to nun’s veiling.


Bulked continuous filament yarns for carpet trade, usually nylon, polypropylene, or polyester.


Velvet with a cut-out pattern or a velvet pile effect, made on a Jacquard loom. This fabric is used primarily for evening wear.


A cylinder of wood or metal, usually with a circular flange on each end, on which warp yarns are wound for slashing, weaving, and warp knitting.


A machine for dyeing warp yarns or fabrics that have been wound onto a special beam, the barrel of which is evenly perforated with holes. The dye liquor is forced through the yarn or fabric from inside to outside and vice versa.


The operation of winding warp yarns onto a beam usually in preparation for slashing, weaving, or warp knitting. Also called warping.


A two-dimensional fabric that when oriented in the XY plane contains fibers that are aligned in a different direction, i.e., 45° to the X-axis fibers.


An adhesive applied with a solvent or a softenable plastic melted to bond fibers together in a web or to bind one web to another.


The ability of a substance to be broken down by bacteria so that it can be returned to the environment without posing an environmental hazard.


An unquilted bedding fabric designed primarily to provide thermal insulation.


Any of several processes to remove the natural and artificial impurities in fabrics to obtain clear whites for finished fabric or in preparation for dyeing and finishing.


Loss of color by a fabric or yarn when immersed in water, a solvent, or a similar liquid medium, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of dyes of poor quality. Fabrics that bleed can cause staining of white or light shade fabrics in contact with them while wet.


  • A yarn obtained when two or more staple fibers are combined in a textile process for producing spun yarns (e.g., at opening, carding, or drawing).
  • A fabric that contains a blended yarn (of the same fiber content) in the warp and filling.


A cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings, or yarns.


A test designed to measure shrinkage in a cord, yarn, or high-shrinkage fiber when it is immersed in boiling water while under a tension of 0.05 grams/denier.


  • A fabric containing two or more layers of cloth joined together with resin, rubber, foam, or adhesive to form one ply.


  • A process for adhesive laminating two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic foam. There are two methods: the flame method used for bonding foam and the adhesive method used for bonding face and backing fabrics.
  • One of several processes of binding fibers into thin sheets, webs, or battings by means of adhesives, plastics, or cohesion (self-bonding).


Print cloth treated with pyroxylin or starch and clay and used in bookbinding.


A method of folding finished fabric in which the fabric is first folded in half widthwise, then folded back and forth in equal lengths. Finally, the fold edge on each side is folded to the inside, forming a compact bundle equal in length to one-half the width of the goods.


The greatest distance, measured parallel to the selvages, between a filling yarn and a straight line drawn between the points at which this yarn meets the selvages. Bow may be expressed directly in inches or as a percentage of the width of the fabric at that point.


A loom using two or more shuttles for weaving fabrics with filling yarns that differ in fiber type, color, twist, level, or yarn size. The box motion is automatic, changing from one shuttle to another. Examples of fabrics made on box looms are crepes and ginghams.

Box pleat Bottom fitted valance (BFV)

A bottom fitted valance is a sheet which is fitted to your bed but also enhanced with a deep valance which dresses and conceals the base of most modern divan beds.


A measure of yarn strength calculated as: (1) the product of breaking strength times indirect yarn number, or (2) the product of breaking strength times the reciprocal of the direct yarn number.


A measure of the breaking strength of a yarn; the calculated length of a specimen whose weight is equal to its breaking load. The breaking length expressed in kilometers is numerically equal to the breaking tenacity expressed in grams-force per tex.


The maximum load (or force) applied to a specimen in a tensile test carried to rupture. It is commonly expressed in grams-force (kilograms-force), pounds, or Newton’s.


  • The maximum resultant internal force that resists rupture in a tension test. The expression “breaking strength” is not used for compression tests, bursting tests, or tear resistance tests in textiles.
  • The load (or force) required to break or rupture a specimen in a tensile test made according to a specified standard procedure.


  • Originally, a silk shirting fabric so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual 29 inches.
  • A tightly woven, lustrous cotton or polyester/cotton blend fabric in a plain weave with a crosswise rib. It resembles poplin, but the rib is finer, and broadcloth always has more picks that poplin. The finest qualities are made with combed Pima or Egyptian cotton.
  • A smooth, rich-looking, woolen fabric with a napped face and twill back. Better grades have a glossy, velvety hand.


Woven fabrics 18 inches or more in width.


A term that refers to carpets woven in widths from 54 inches to 18 feet, as distinguished from narrow loom widths of 27 to 36 inches.


  • A rich, Jacquard-woven fabric with an all over interwoven design of raised figures or flowers. The pattern is emphasized by contrasting surfaces or colors and often has gold or silver threads running through it. The background may be either a satin or a twill weave.
  • A term describing a cut-pile carpet having a surface texture created by mixing twisted and straight standing pile yarns.


A broken, untied warp thread in a fabric. There are numerous causes, such as slubs, knots, improper shuttle alignment, shuttle hitting the warp shed, excessive warp tension, faulty sizing, and rough reeds, heddles, drop wires, and shuttles.


A broken filling thread in a fabric. Usual caused include too much shuttle tension, weak yarn, or filling coming into contact with a sharp surface.


A finishing process in which rotating brushes raise a nap on knit or woven fabrics. Brushing is used on sweaters, scarves, knit underwear, wool broadcloths, etc.


A coarse, heavy, plain weave fabric constructed from singles yarn of jute. Used for Bags, upholstery lining, in curtains and draperies.


  • The ability of a material to resist rupture by pressure.
  • The force required to rupture a fabric by distending it with a force applied at right angles to the plane of the fabric under specified condition. Bursting strength is a measure widely used for knit fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, and felts where the constructions do not lend themselves to tensile tests. The two basic types of bursting tests are the inflated diaphragm method and the ball-bust method.


A knit effect produced by crossing a group of stitches over a neighboring stitch group.


A machine used in finishing to impart a variety of surface effects to fabrics. A calendar essentially consists of two or more heavy rollers, sometimes heated, through which the fabric passes under heavy pressure.


A mechanical finishing process for fabrics to produce special effects, such as high luster, glazing, moiré, and embossed effects. In this operation, the fabric is passed between heated rolls under pressure.


  • The main cylinders on a calender.
  • Smooth or fluted rolls used on carious fiber-processing machines such as pickers and cards to compress the lap or sliver as it passes between them.


A plain, closely woven, inexpensive cloth, usually cotton or a cotton/manufactured fiber blend, characteristically having figured patterns on a white or contrasting background. Calico is typically used for aprons, dresses, and quilts.


A rotating or sliding piece or projection used to impart timed or periodic motion to other parts of a machine. It is used chiefly as a controlling or timing element in machines rather than as part of a power transmission mechanism. Cams are particularly important in both knitting and weaving machinery.


A soft, white, closely woven, cotton or cotton blend fabric that has been calendered on the right side to give it a slight gloss. Cambric is used extensively for handkerchiefs.


An unbleached muslin base fabric used to produce a chenille-like fabric by applying candlewick (heavy-plied yarn) loops and cutting the loops to give a fuzzy effect.


A heavy cotton or cotton blend material with a twilled face and a napped back. The fabric’s strength, warmth, and absorbance make it ideal for interlinings and sleeping garments.




A machine used in the manufacture of staple yards. Its functions are to separate, align, and deliver the fibers in a sliver form and to remove impurities. The machine consists of a series of rolls, the surfaces of which are covered with many projecting wired or metal teeth. Short staple systems employ flat strips covered with card clothing rather that small rolls.


A cotton yarn that has been carded but not combed. Carded yarns contain a wider range of fiber lengths and, as a result, are not as uniform or as strong as combed yarns. They are considerably cheaper and are used in medium and course counts.


A process in the manufacture of spun yarns whereby the staple is opened, cleaned, aligned, and formed into a continuous, untwisted strand called a sliver.


The label that gives directions for cleaning, ironing, and otherwise maintaining a fabric of fiber product.


The extremely soft hair of the Cashmere goat. Cashmere is often blended with sheep’s wool in fabrics.


A carbohydrate which is the chief component of the cell walls of plants. Cellulose is found in wood and in cotton, linen, jute, hemp, and all of the bast, leaf, and stem Fibers. It is a basic raw material in the manufacture of rayon, acetate, and triacetate fibers.


A fiber composed of, or derived from, cellulose. Examples are cotton (cellulose), rayon (regenerated cellulose), acetate (cellulose acetate), and triacetate (cellulose triacetate).


  • A plain woven-spun fabric, almost square (i.e., 80 x 76), with a colored warp and a white filling. Lightweight chambrays are used for shirts, dresses, and children’s clothes. 2. A similar but heavier fabric of carded yam, used for work clothing.


A variable multicolored effect achieved by using warp yarns of one color and two filling yarns of different colors in each shed. It is sometimes used in taffeta, faille, or poplin made from silk or manufactured filament yarns.


A cylindrical package of yarn wound on a flangeless tube


A low-count, plain weave, soft cotton or cotton blend cloth also known as gauze.


A crinkled or puckered effect in fabric obtained by printing sodium hydroxide onto the goods in a planned design. When the material is washed, the part to which the paste has been applied will shrink and cause untreated areas to pucker. The same effect is obtained with a caustic resist print and a sodium hydroxide bath.


Processes in which additives are applied to change the aesthetic and functional properties of a material. Examples are the application of antioxidants, flameretardant, wetting agents, and stain and water repellents.


Degree of resistance of a material to chemicals, such as acids, bases, solvents, oils, and oxidizing agents, and to chemical reactions, including those catalyzed by light.


  • A yarn with a fuzzy pile protruding from all sides, cut from a woven chenille weft fabric. Chenille yarns are made from all fibers, and they are used as filling in fabrics and forembroidery, fringes, and tassels.
  • Fabric woven with chenille yarn.


A plain weave, lightweight, sheer, transparent fabric made from fine, highly twisted yarns. It is usually a square fabric, i.e., having approximately the same number of ends and picks and the same count in both warp and filling.


A cotton or cotton blend twill used by armies throughout the world for summer-weight uniforms. Chino is frequently dyed khaki.


A glazed fabric produced by friction calendering. Unglazed chintz is called cretonne.


A tubular weft-knit fabric made of a circular-knitting machine.


Visible deformation of selvage due to pressure from a stenter clip.


A generic term embracing all textile fabrics and felts. Cloth may be formed of any textile fiber, wire, or other material, and it includes any pliant fabric woven, knit, felted, needled, sewn, or otherwise formed.


A yarn larger in diameter than other yarns being used in the fabric


A fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water impermeability.


The application of a semi-liquid material such as rubber, polyvinyl chloride, or polyurethane to one or both sides of a textile material. Once the coating has been dried (and cured, if necessary), it forms a bond with the fabric.

Calender Coating

A type of roller coating that is actually a laminating operation. The coating is formed into a sheet, then joined with the fabric.

Dip Coating

The process of passing a fabric through a solution of resin or elastomer, then through squeeze rolls to remove excess and leave a thin surface layer on the base fabric. In this process, both sides can be coated in one pass.

Direct Coating

The simplest method of coating, this procedure involves spreading the coating with a knife. The moving fabric substrate is usually supported by a roller or a sleeve. The gap between the knife and the fabric determines coating thickness.

Roller Coating

In this method, a roller is used to apply the coating to the moving substrate fabric. Various roll configurations can be used.

Transfer Coating

This method involves applying the coating to a temporary substrate and then adding an adhesive coating (tie coat) to allow transfer by roller of the coating to the desired substrate.


Color changes in localized areas of a garment resulting from differential wear.


Resistance to fading; i.e., the property of a dye to retain its colour when the dyed (or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the colour. A dye may be reasonably fast to one agent and only moderately fast to another. Degree of fastness of colour is tested by standard procedures. Textile materials often must meet certain fastness specifications for a particular use.


A yarn produced from combed sliver.


A fabric containing: (1) different fibers in the warp and filling (e.g., a cotton warp and a rayon filling), (2) ends of two or more fibers in the warp and/or filling, (3)combination yarns, (4) both filament yarn and spun yarn of the same or different fibers, or (5)filament yarns of two or more generic fiber types. Combination fabrics may be either knit or woven. They should not be confused with blend fabrics. Although blend fabrics also contain more that one fiber, the same intimately blended spun yarn is present in both warp and filling.


A piled yarn containing two or more yarns that vary in fiber composition, content, and/or twist level; or plied yarn composed of both filament yarn and spun yarn.


A step subsequent to carding in cotton and worsted system processing which straightens the fibers and extracts neps, foreign matter, and short fibers. Combing produces a stronger, more even, more compact, finer, smoother yarn.


The commercial moisture regain plus a specific allowance for finish used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.


An arbitrary value adopted as the moisture regain to be used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.


  • In natural fibers, the dry weight of fibers or yarns plus the commercial moisture regain.
  • In manufactured fibers, the dry weight of staple spun yarns or filament yarns after scouring by prescribed methods, plush the commercial moisture regain.


Air-jet interlaced yarns. Since the entanglement serves only as a substitute for twist, the degree of interlace or tangle is not as great as in air-jet bulked yarns.


  • An article or substance of two or more constituents, generally, with reinforcing elements dispersed in a matrix or continuous phase.
  • Hard or soft constructions in which the fibers themselves are consolidated to form structures
    rather than being formed into yarns. Rigidity of these constructions is controlled by the density, the modulus of the load-bearing fibers, and the fraction of fusible fibers. Strength is controlled by adhesion and shear-yield strength of the matrix unless fibers are bonded in a load-transferring matrix.
  • A structure made by laminating a nonwoven fabric with another nonwoven, with other materials, or by impregnating a nonwoven fabric with resins.


Fibers composed of two or more polymer types in a sheath-core or side-by-side (bilateral) relation.


A conical package of yarn, usually wound on a disposable paper core.


The process of making a corespun yarn.It consists of feeding the core yarn (an elastomeric filament yarn, a regular filament yarn, a textured yarn, or a previously spun yarn) into the front delivery roll of the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning operation.


A yarn made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core. Core yarns are used in sewing thread, blankets, and socks and also to obtain novelty effects in fabrics.


The yarn numbering system based on length and weight originally used for cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns spun on the cotton, or short-staple, system. It is based on a unit length of 840 yards, and the count of the yarn is equal to the number of 840- yard skeins required to weigh 1 pound. Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn.


A unicellular, natural fiber composed of almost pure cellulose. As taken from plants, the fiber is found in lengths of 3/8 to 2 inches. For marketing, the fibers are graded and classed for length, strength, and color.


Originating from the Persian word “pargalah”, percale is a smooth fabric of especially high quality and is generally less likely to produce fluff or bobbling than other typed of woven fabric. Percale has a soft, silky fee which makes it ideal for bed linen.


A process originally used for manufacturing cotton fiber into yarn, and now also used extensively for producing spun yarns of manufactured fibers, including blends. Processing on the cotton system includes the general operations of opening, picking, carding, drawing, roving, and ring or mule spinning in the production of carded yarns. For combed yarns, three steps, culminating in combing, are included after the carding operation. There have been many modifications of this process, especially in recent years for the so-called “long draft,” or “Casablancas,” system. The cotton system is also proving to be the basis of many hybrid systems for handling wool yarns and for manufacturing other long-staple yarns.


  • A numerical designation of yarn size indicating the relationship of length to weight.
  • The number of warp yarns (ends) and filling yarns (picks) per inch in a woven fabric, or the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. For example, a fabric count of 68 x 52 indicates 68 ends per inch in the warp and 52 picks per inch in the filling.


The row of loops or stitches running across a knit fabric, corresponding to the filling in woven fabrics.


  • The degree of evenness of thread spacing.
  • The degree to which underlying structure is concealed by the surface material, as in carpets, the degree to which pile covers backing.
  • The ability of a dye to conceal defects in fabric.


The fraction of the surface area that is covered by yarns assuming round yarn shape.


The skin of a cow. Hides are normally valued for their warmth as well as being a status symbol.


A break or line in a fabric generally caused by a sharp fold. Creases may be either desirable or undesirable, depending upon the situation. A crease may be intentionally pressed into a fabric by application of pressure and heat and sometimes moisture.


A term used to describe a fabric treated chemically to improve its resistance to and recovery from wrinkling.


The ability of a fabric to maintain an inserted crease. Crease retention can be measured subjectively or by the relation of a crease in a subsequent state to the crease in the initial state. Crease retention may be strongly dependent on the conditions of use, e.g. normal wear, washing or tumble-drying.


A lightweight fabric characterized by a crinkling surface obtained by the use of: (1) hard-twist filling yarns, (2) chemical treatment, (3) crepe weaves, and (4) embossing.


A stiff, heavily sized fabric used as an interlining or to support areas such as the edge of a hem.


The rubbing-off of dye from a fabric as a result of insufficient dye penetration or fixation, the use of improper dyes or dyeing methods, or insufficient washing and treatment after the dyeing operation. Crocking can occur under dry or wet conditions.


The width dimension, within the plane of the fabric, that is perpendicular to the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the machine


The piece of fabric at the top of a flat sheet which folds over the top of the duvet creating a uniform appearance. The cuff often has an embroidered or appliqu?d decorative detail.


  • In finishing fabrics, the process by which resins or plastics are set in or on textile materials, usually by heating.
  • In rubber processing, vulcanization. It is accomplished either by heat treatment or by treatment in cold sulfuryl chloride solution.


A pile surface obtained by cutting the loops of yarn in a tufted or woven carpet.


A cut or break occurring only in the selvage. A cut selvage is caused by incorrect loom adjustment during weaving or improper edge construction. The term also refers to loose edges cut during shearing of the fabric.


A firm, glossy, Jacquard-patterned fabric that may be made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or a combination of these with various manufactured fibers. Similar to brocade, but flatter and reversible, damask is used for napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.


A weight-per-unit-length measure of any linear material. Officially, it is the number of unit weights of 0.05 grams per 450-meter length. This is numerically equal to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of the material. Denier is a direct numbering system in which the lower numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the coarser sizes. In the U.S., the denier system is used for numbering filament yarns (except glass), manufactured fiber staple (but not spun yarns), and tow. In most countries outside the U.S., the denier system has been replaced by the tex system.


A firm 2 x 1 or 3 x 1 twill-weave fabric, often having a whitish tinge, obtained by using white filling yarns with colored warp yarns. Heavier weight denims, usually blue or brown, are used for dungarees, work clothes, and men’s and women’s sportswear. Lighter weight denims with softer finish are made in a variety of colors and patterns and are used for sportswear and draperies.


The mass per unit volume (usually expressed as grams per cubic centimeter).


On a loom, the space between the wires of a reed.


The ability of textile material to maintain or return to its original geometric configuration


  • A mechanical attachment on a loom. A dobby controls the harnesses to permit the weaving of geometric figures.
  • A loom equipped with a dobby. 3. A fabric woven on a dobby loom.


A fabric produced on a circular-knitting machine equipped with two sets of latch needles situated at right angles to each other (dial and cylinder).


  • A process for combining several strands of sliver, roving, or yarn in yarn manufacturing.
  • The process of twisting together two or more singles or plied yarns, i.e.,plying.
  • A British term for twisting.
  • The term doubling is sometimes used in a sense opposite to singling. This is unintentional plying.
  • A yarn, considerably heavier that normal, produced by a broken end becoming attached to and twisting into another end.


These are the softer feathers from underneath a duck or a goose. The soft, light clusters found under the feathers of geese or ducks that trap warm air next to the birds’ skin. Each cluster has thousands of soft, puffy filaments that extend outward from a central quill (like a dandelion), creating a 3-dimensional structure for maximum loft and insulation. These clusters trap heat and air, which provide insulation whilst letting your breathe. The higher the down count usually indicates the softer it will be.


Blends of fibers made at the draw frame by feeding in ends of appropriate card sliver. This method is used when blend uniformity is not a critical factor.


  • The process of attenuating or increasing the length per unit weight of laps, slivers, slubbings, or rovings.
  • The hot or cold stretching of continuous filament yarn or tow to align and arrange the crystalline structure of the molecules to achieve improved tensile properties.


A strong denim-like material with a diagonal 2 x 1 weave running toward the left selvage. Drill is often called khaki when it is dyed that color.


A defect in knit cloth characterized by recurrent cuts in one or more wales of a length of cloth.


  • An open design made in knitting by removing some of the needles at set intervals.
  • A defect in knit fabric.


A compact, firm, heavy, plain weave fabric with a weigh of 6 to 50 ounces per square yard. Plied yarn duck has plied yarn in both warp and filling. Flat duck has a warp of two single yarns woven as one and a filling of either single or plied yarn.


A relative term for the resistance of a material to loss of physical properties or appearance as a result of wear or dynamic operation


This type of feather is often used in home furnishings due to its soft, warm and comfortable properties. Natural fillings are more resilient and longer lasting than synthetic fillings.


Originally made from silk sourced from double cocoons, Dupion has an irregular yarn which gives it a characteristic fuller texture. Interior designers love its lofty fullness and elegance


A process of coloring fibers, yarns, or fabrics with either natural or synthetic dyes. Some of the major dyeing processes are described below:


A resist-dyeing process in which portions of a fabric are coated with wax; during the dyeing process, only the uncovered areas take up dye. The process can be repeated so that several colors are used. Batik dyeing is often imitated in machine printing.

Chain Dyeing

A method of dyeing yarns and fabrics of low tensile strength of tying them end to-end and running them through the dye bath in a continuous process.

Cross Dyeing

A method of dyeing blend or combination fabrics to two or more shades by the use of dyes with different affinities for the different fibers.

High-Temperature Dyeing

A dyeing operation in which the aqueous dye baths are maintained at temperatures greater than 100°C by use of pressurized equipment. Used for many manufactured fibers.


Term used to describe yarn or stock that is dyed in two or more shades prior to knitting or weaving to create blended color effects in fabrics.

Jet Dyeing

High temperature piece dyeing in which the dye liquor is circulated via a Venturi jet thus providing the driving force to move the loop of fabric.


A term to describe a manufactured fiber (yarn, staple, or tow) that has been colored by the introduction of pigments or insoluble dyes into the polymer melt or spinning solution prior to extrusion. Usually, the colors are fast to most destructive agents.

Muff Dyeing

A form of yarn dyeing in which the cone has been removed.

Package Dyeing

Yarn Dyeing.

Pad Dyeing

A form of dyeing whereby a dye solution is applied by means of a padder or mangle.

Piece Dyeing

The dyeing of fabrics “in the piece,” i.e., in fabric form after weaving or knitting as opposed to dyeing in the form of yarn or stock.

Pressure Dyeing

Dyeing by means of forced circulation of dye through packages of fiber, yarn, or fabric under superatmospheric pressure.

Reserve Dyeing

  • A method of dyeing in which one component of a blend or combination fabric is left undyed. The objective is accomplished by the use of dyes that have affinity for the fiber to be colored but not for the fiber to be reserved.
  • A method of treating yarn or fabric so that in the subsequent dyeing operation the treated portion will not be dyed.

Short-Liquor Dyeing

A term used to describe any yarn or piece dyeing in which the liquor ration has been significantly reduced. The technique was designed to save water and energy.

Thermal Fixation

A process for dyeing polyester whereby the color is diffused into the fiber by means of dry heat.

Union Dyeing

A method of dyeing a fabric containing two or more fibers or yarns to the same shade so as to achieve the appearance of a solid colored fabric.

Yarn Dyeing

The dyeing of yarn before the fabric is woven or knit. Yarn can be dyed in the form of skeins, muff, packages, cheeses, cakes, chain-wraps, and beams.


Various substances that can be added to the dyebath to aid dyeing. They may necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide improvements in leveling, penetration, etc. Also call dyeing assistants.


A broad term referring to the collection of dye and chemical baths, drying equipment, etc., in a continuous-dyeing line.


Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes differ in their resistance to sunlight, perspiration, washing, gas, alkalies, and other agents; their affinity for different fibers; their reaction to cleaning agents and methods; and their solubility and method of application. Various classes and types are listed below.

Acid Dyes

A class of dyes used on wool, other animal fibers, and some manufactured fibers. Acid dyes are seldom used on cotton or linen since this process requires a mordant. Acid dyes are widely used on nylon when high wash fastness is required. In some cases, even higher wash fastness can be obtained by aftertreatment with fixatives.

Aniline Dyes

Dyes derived chemically from aniline or other coal tar derivatives.

Anthraquinone Dyes

Dyes that have anthraquinone as their base and the carbonyl group (>C=O) as the chromophore. Anthraquinone-based dyes are found in most of the synthetic dye classes.

Azo Dyes

Dyes characterized by the presence of an azo group (-N=N-) as the chromophore. Azo dyes are found in many of the synthetic dye classes.

Azoic Dyes

Naphthol Dyes.

Basic Dyes

A class of positive-ion-carrying dyes known for their brilliant hues. Basic dyes are composed of large-molecule, water-soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and can be applied to cotton with a mordant. The fastness of basic dyes on these fibers is very poor. Basic dyes are also used on basic-dyeable acrylics, modacrylics, nylons, and polyesters, on which they exhibit reasonably good fastness.

Cationic Dyes

Basic Dyes.

Developed Dyes

Dyes that are formed by the use of a developer. The substrate is first dyed in a neutral solution with a dye base, usually colorless. The dye is then diazotized with sodium nitrate and an acid and afterwards treated with a solution of B-naphthol, or a similar substance, which is the developer. Direct dyes are developed to produce a different shade or to improve wash fastness or light fastness.

Direct Dyes

A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied to rayon, silk, and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor wash fastness. Various aftertreatments are used to improve the wash fastness of direct dyes, and such dyes are referred to as “aftertreated direct colors.”

Disperse Dyes

A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers.

Fiber-Reactive Dyes

A type of water-soluble anionic dye having affinity for cellulose fibers. In the presence of alkali, they react with hydroxyl groups in the cellulose and thus are liked with the fiber. Fiber-reactive dyes are relatively new dyes and are used extensively on cellulosics when bright shades are desired.

Naphthol Dyes

A type of azo compound formed on the fiber by first treating the fiber with a phenolic compound. The fiber is then immersed in a second solution containing a diazonuim salt that reacts with the phenilic compound to produce a colored azo compound. Since the phenolic compound is dissolved in caustic solution, these dyes are mainly used for cellulose fiber, although other fibers can be dyed by modifying the process.

Premetallized Dyes

Acid dyes that are treated with coordinating metals such as chromium. This type of dye has much better wetfastness than regular acid dye. Premetallized dyes are used on nylon, silk, and wool.

Sulfur Dyes

A class of water-insoluble dyes that are applied in a soluble, reduced form from a sodium sulfide solution and are then reoxidized to the insoluble form on the fiber. Sulfur dyes are mainly used on cotton for economical dark shades of moderate to good fastness to washing and light. They generally give very poor fastness to chlorine.

Vat Dyes

A class of water-insoluble dyes which are applied to the fiber in a reduced, soluble form (leuco compound) and then reoxidized to the original insoluble form. Vat dyes are among the most resistant dyes to both washing and sunlight. They are widely used on cotton, linen rayon, and other cellulosic fibers.


A term used to characterize fabrics that, after laundering, can be restored to their original appearance with a minimum of ironing or other treatment. An ease-of-care fabric generally wrinkles only slightly upon laundering


A tester designer to determine the tearing strength of paper. It is also used to measure the tearing strength of very lightweight fabrics and resin-finished apparel fabrics. A trapezoidal fabric sample is employed.


The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation is measured in units of length (e.g., millimeters, inches) or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking load.


A calendering process for producing raised or projected figures or designs in relief on fabric surfaces. Embossed surfaces are usually produced on fabrics by engraved, heated rollers that give a raised effect. Embossed velvet or plush is made by shearing the pile to different levels or by pressing part of the pile flat.


Ornamental designs worked on a fabric with threads. Embroidery may be done either by hand or


  • A series of small holes made to receive a string or tape. A buttonhole stitch is worked around the holes.
  • A type of yarn guide used on a creel. 3. A fabric style with areas of cut-outs surrounded by stitchingby machine
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