• A light yellowish brown.
  • A khaki-colored cloth of cotton, wool, or combinations of these fibers with manufactured fibers used primarily in military uniforms and work clothes.


Process of boiling cellulosic materials in alkaline liquors in a kier at or above atmospheric pressure


A structure produced by interlooping one or more ends of yarn or comparable material.


A method of constructing fabric by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. The two major classes of knitting are warp knitting and weft knitting, as follows:

1 .Warp Knitting

A type of knitting in which the yarns generally run lengthwise in the fabric. The yarns are prepared as warps on beams with one or more yarns for each needle. Examples of this type of knitting are tricot, milanese, and raschel knitting.

Milanese Knitting

A type of run-resistant warp knitting with a diagonal rib effect using several sets of yarns.

Raschel Knitting

A versatile type of warp knitting made in plain and Jacquard patterns; the latter can be made with intricate eyelet and lacy patterns and is often used for underwear fabrics. Raschel fabrics are coarser than other warp-knit fabrics, but a wide range of fabrics can be made. Raschel knitting machines have one or two sets of latch needles and up to thirty sets of guides.

Tricot Knitting

A run-resistant type of warp knitting in which either single or double sets of yarn are used.

2. Weft Knitting

A common type of knitting, in which one continuous thread runs crosswise in the fabric making all of the loops in one course. Weft knitting types are circular and flat knitting.

Circular Knitting

The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in the form of a tube, the threads running continuously around the fabric.

Flat Knitting

The fabric is produced on the knitting machine in flat form, the threads alternating back and forth across the fabric. The fabric can be given shape in the knitting process by increasing or decreasing loops. Full-fashioned garments are made on a flat knitting machine.


Continuous dye range for carpets. The unit wets the carpet, applies dyes and auxiliary chemicals by means of a doctor blade, fixes the dyes in a festoon steamer, and washes and dries the carpet in one pass through the range. An optional auxiliary unit may be installed to randomly drip selected dyes onto the background shade for special styling effects. This process is called TAK dyeing.


Ornamental openwork fabric, made in a variety of designs by intricate manipulation of the fiber by machine or by hand.


In this knitting stitch structure, loops are transferred from the needles on which they are made to adjacent needles to create a fabric with an open or a raised effect.


The ladder stitch is created by using a large sharp needle that literally punches through the fabric to create desired holes and design. This is repeated consistently to create a ladder effect


A knit fabric in which an effect yarn is tucked in, not knitted into, the fabric structure. The laid-in yarns are held in position by the knitted yarns.


A continuous, considerably compressed sheet of fibers that is rolled under pressure into a cylindrical package, usually weighing between 40 and 50 pounds. The lap is used to supply the card.


A term describing the movement of yarn guides between needles, at right angles to the needle bar, or laterally in relation to the needle bar, or laterally in relation to the needle bar during warp knitting.


A milky fluid found in certain cells of some families of seed plants. Latex is the raw material from which rubber is made.


A weave in which the warp yarns are arranged in pairs with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn as in marquisette. This type of weave gives firmness and strength to an openweave fabric and prevents slippage and displacement of warp and filling yarns.


The degree of resistance of dyed textile materials to the color-destroying influence of sunlight. Two methods of testing are in use: (1) exposure to sunlight, either directly or under glass, and (2) accelerated testing in a laboratory apparatus equipped with any of several types of artificial light sources.


Mass per unit length expressed as grams per centimeter, pounds per foot, or equivalent units. It is the quotient obtained by dividing the mass of a fiber or yarn by its length.


Cellulosic fibers derived from the stem of the flax plant or a fabric made from these fibers. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous that cotton; they yield cool, absorbent fabrics that wrinkle easily. Fabrics with linen-like texture and coolness but with good wrinkle resistance can be produced from manufactured fibers and blends.


Particles and short fibers that fall from a textile product during the stresses of use.


A long fiber. In reference to cotton, long staple indicates a fiber length of not less that 1-1/8 inches. In reference to wool, the term indicates fiber 3 to 4 inches long suitable for combing.


A machine for weaving fabric by interlacing a series of vertical, parallel threads (the warp) with a series of horizontal, parallel threads (the filling). The warp yarns from a beam pass through the heddles and reed, and the filling is shot through the “shed” of warp threads by means of a shuttle or other device and is settled in place by the reed and lay. The woven fabric is then wound on a cloth beam. The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner of filling insertion (see WEFT INSERTION, 1). The principal elements of any type of loom are the shedding, picking, and beating-up devices. In shedding, a path is formed for the filling by raising some warp threads while others are left down. Picking consists essentially of projecting the filling yarn from one side of the loom to the other. Beating-up forces the pick, that has just been left in the shed, up to the fell of the fabric. This is accomplished by the reed, which is brought forward with some force by the lay. (Also see JACQUARD.)


A repeated unevenness in the fabric, usually running from selvage to selvage, and caused by uneven let-off or take-up or by a loose crank arm.


A term describing fabric that is sold in the condition in which it comes from the loom. term is frequently associated with the adjectives bright or dull to distinguish between varieties of manufactured fibers.


The finishing of yarn or fabric by means of heat, pressure, steam, friction, calendering, etc., to produce luster.


A manufacturing cellulose fiber made by direct dissolution of wood pulp in an amine oxide solvent, N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide. The clear solution is extruded into a dilute aqueous solution of amine oxide, which precipitates the cellulose in the form of filaments. The fiber is then washed before it is dried and finished.


The long direction within the place of the fabric, i.e., the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the machine.


A hard-twist sewing thread, usually of 3-ply construction spun with S twists and plied with Z twist, especially made for use in sewing machines.


Fiber obtained from the leaf stalks of the abaca plant. It is generally used for cordage.


A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber-forming substances which may be: (1) polymers synthesized from chemical compounds, e.g., acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, polyurethane, and polyvinyl fibers; (2) modified or transformed natural polymers, e.g., alginic and cellulose-based fibers such as acetates and rayons; and (3) minerals, e.g., glasses. The term manufactured usually refers to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, etc.


A soft, double or compound fancy-woven fabric with a quilted appearance. Heavier types are used as draperies and upholsteries. Crepe matelassé is used for dresses, wraps, and other apparel. Matelassé is usually woven on a Jacquard loom.


Memory foam is a breakthrough in sleep technology, which is now hugely popular with insomnia sufferers. The foam contours to the shape of your body, creating support throughout making for a comfortable nights sleep; ideal for people who suffer with neck and back ailments. After use the foam reverts back to its original shape.


A process in woven fabric manufacture in which weaving imperfections, tears, broken yarns, and similar defects are repaired after weaving; especially on woolen and worsted fabrics to prepare them for dyeing, finishing, or other processing.


A treatment of cotton yarn or fabric to increase its luster and affinity for dyes. The material is immersed under tension in a cold sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution in warp or skein form or in the piece, and is later neutralized in acid. The process causes a permanent swelling of the fiber and thus increases its luster.


  • 1. Wool from purebred Merino sheep. Merino wool usually has a mean fiber diameter of 24 microns or less.
  • 2. A yarn of blended wool and cotton fibers.


Originating from the Merino breed of sheep in Spain during the 1700’s, the wool is noted for its fineness and whiteness. Merino sheep are now bred and exported to many different countries around the world and they are synonymous with fine wool. The Merino wool we use features particularly strong, elastic fibres which is perfect for use in mattress toppers and duvets.


A broad term for fabric characterized by open spaces between the yarns. Mesh fabrics may be woven, knit, lace, net, crochet, etc.


These microscopically small fibre or filaments are used as a popular synthetic filling for bedding and are ideal for allergy sufferers. The surface is usually brushed so it is soft to the touch.


  • 1. Movement of dye from one area of dyed fabric to another. Includes movement of color from the dyed area to the undyed area of cloth.
  • 2. Movement of fibers which go from the center to the outside surface of yarn and back again periodically.


A whitish growth caused by spore-forming fungi that grow in a warm, moist, confined atmosphere. The formation of mildew may cause discoloration, tendering, or variation in dyeing properties in cellulosic fiber.


The degree to which fabrics are unaffected by certain fungi that cause odor and discoloration.


A term describing home laundering methods. Minimum care fabrics, garments, and household textile articles can be washed satisfactorily by normal home laundering methods and can be used or worn after light ironing. Light ironing denotes ironing without starching or dampening and with a relatively small expenditure of physical effort.


A weaving defect in which a pick is improperly interlaced, resulting in a break in the weave pattern. Mispicks can result from starting the loom on the incorrect pick after a pick-out.


A heat stabilization process for yarns. The yarns are wound onto packages and subjected to package dyeing conditions (water, pressure, temperature) but without dye an chemicals in the bath.


A combination of weaves having interlacings that tend to form the warp ends into groups (with empty spaces intervening) in the cloth, thereby giving an imitation of the open structure that is characteristic of leno fabrics. Mock leno fabrics are used for summer shirts, dresses, and other apparel, and as a shading medium in Jacquard designs.


A manufactured fiber in which the fiberforming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of less that 85% but at least 35% by weight of acrylonitrile units. Both wet and dry spinning are used.


Mohair is one of world’s oldest textile fibres and is renowned for its durability and natural properties which include unique lustre, lightweight and excellent crease resistance. Sourced originally from the Angora goat, today Mohair is usually woven with silk, wool, or cotton.


A wavy or watered effect on a textile fabric, especially a corded fabric of silk, rayon, or one of the manufactured fibers. Moiré is produced by passing the fabric between engraved cylinders which press the design into the material, causing the crushed and uncrushed parts to reflect light differently.


Any single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually of a denier higher than 14. Instead of a group of filaments being extruded through a spinneret to form a yarn, monofilaments generally are spun individually. Monofilaments can be used for textiles such as hosiery or sewing thread or for nontextile uses such as bristles, papermaker’s felts, fishing lines, etc.


A broad term describing a wide variety of plain-weave cotton or polyester/cotton fabrics ranging from lightweight sheers to heavier shirting and sheeting.


A smaller, cylindrical bolster cushion. This can be extremely useful for stiff neck sufferers as an additional lumber support underneath the neck when lying on a bed. Our neck roll cushions are particularly smart and decorative.


A small knot of entangled fibers that usually will not straighten to a parallel position during carding or drafting.


An open fabric made by knotting the intersections of thread, cord, or wires to form meshes. Net can be made by hand or machine in a variety of mesh sizes and weights matched to varying end uses, i.e.,veils, curtains, fish nets, and heavy cargo nets.


In a fiber production process the total throughput less waste and inferior or off-grade material.


An assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing of the fibers (in the case of thermoplastic fibers), or by bonding with a cementing medium such as starch, glue, casein, rubber, latex, or one of the cellulose derivatives or synthetic resins. Initially, the fibers may be oriented in one direction or may be deposited in a random manner. This web or sheet of fibers is bonded together by one of the methods described above. Normally, crimped fibers that range in length from 0.75 to 4.5 inches are used.
Nonwoven fabrics are used for expendable items such as hospitable sheets, napkins, diapers, wiping cloths, as the base material for coated fabrics, and in a variety of other applications. They can also be used for semi-disposable items and for permanent items such as interlinings.


A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain (FTC definition). The two principal nylons are nylon 66, which is polyhexamethylenedianime adipamide, and nylon 6, which is polycaprolactam. Nylon 66 is so designated because each of the raw materials, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid, contains six carbon atoms. In the manufacture of nylon 66 fiber, these materials are combined, and the resultant monomer is then polymerized. After polymerization, the material is hardened into a translucent ivory-white solid that is cut or broken into fine chips, flakes, or pellets. This material is melted and extruded through a spinneret while in the molten state to form filaments that solidify quickly as they reach the cooler air.
Any fabric treated with linseed-oil varnish to make it waterproof. It comes in plain colors and printed designs and is most commonly used for table covers or shelf covering. It has now been widely replaced by plastic coated fabrics.


A system of spinning based on the concept of introducing twist into the yarn without package rotation by simply rotating the yarn end at a gap or break in the flow of the fibers between the delivery system and the yarn package. Because the twisting element can be compact and the mass of material to be rotated is small, very high twisting speeds can be attained. The process, in a sense combines the traditional processes of roving and spinning in one operation. Present work is directed toward incorporating the drafting operation into the process by using card sliver as the feedstock. This can facilitate process linking.


1. A colorless compound that, when applied to fabric, absorbs the ultraviolet radiation in light but emits radiation in the visible spectrum.
2. Fluorescent materials added to polymer in manufactured fiber production that emit light in the visible spectrum, usually with a blue cast.


A stiff, thin, plain weave fabric made of silk, nylon, acrylic, or polyester, organza is used primarily in evening and wedding attire for women.


As the name describes this is an environmentally friendly product and an ideal product for anyone who suffers with skin allergies. The cotton itself is free from the use of chemicals, whilst the dyeing process is low impact.


These pillowcases main feature is additional flat border of a couple of inches around the main pillowcase. The border is usually made with mitred corner (joined at a diagonal angle in each corner) and in many cases has a decorative trim segregating the border and the body of the pillow. Also note that an Oxford pillowcase with no mitred corners is generally known as a mock Oxford pillowcase.

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