A planar textile structure produces by interlacing yarns, fibers, or filaments.


The details of structure of fabric. Includes such information as style, width, type of knit of weave, threads per inch in warp and fill, and weight of goods.


  • A nonwoven sheet of matted material of wool, hair, or fur, sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibers, made by a combination of mechanical and chemical action,pressure, moisture, and heat.
  • A woven fabric generally made from wool, but occasionally from cotton or certain manufactured fibers, that is heavily shrunk making it almost impossible to distinguish the weave


A dryer in which cloth is suspended in loops over a series of supporting horizontal poles and carried through the heated chamber in this configuration.


A unit of matter, either natural or manufactured, that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures. A fiber is characterized by having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width. The term refers to units that can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.


The spatial arrangement of fibers in the preform. Each architecture has a definite repeating unit


A fiber of an indefinite or extreme length such as found naturally in silk. Manufactured fibers are extruded into filaments that are converted into filament yarn, staple, or tow.


The number of individual filaments that make up a thread or yarn.


The linear density of a filament expressed in units such as denier or tex.


In the fabrication of composites, the process of placing reinforcing fibers over a rotating form, (mandrel) to make the product shape. Prepreg fibers or dry fibers that are treated in a resin bath immediately prior to winding may be used. The wound form can be cured or consolidated after the fiber winding is complete to product specifications.


A yarn composed of continuous filaments assembled with or without twist.


  • A substance or mixture of substances added to textile materials to impart desired properties.
  • A process, physical or chemical, performed on textile materials to produce a desired effect.
  • A property, such as smoothness, drape, luster, water repellency, flame retardancy, or crease resistance that is produced by 1 and/or 2 above.
  • The state of a textile material as it leaves a process.


Physical and chemical analysis of the lubricant applied to yarns to reduce friction and improve processibility.


Fabric that is ready for the market, having passed through the necessary finishing processes.


All the processes through which fabric is passed after bleaching, dyeing, or printing in preparation for the market or use. Finishing includes such operations as heat-setting, napping, embossing, pressing, calendering, and the application of chemicals that change the character of the fabric. The term finishing is also sometimes used to refer collectively to all processing operations above, including bleaching, dyeing, printing, etc.


A noticeable streak across the entire width of a fabric, usually caused by machine stoppage during processing.


A discolored area on a fabric caused by foreign material such as dirt, grease, or rust.


A term used to describe a material that burns slowly or is self extinguishing after removal of an external source of ignition. A fabric or yarn can be flame resistance because of the innate properties of the fiber, the twist level of the yarn, the fabric construction, or the presence of flame retardants, or because of a combination of these factors.


A chemical compound that can be incorporated into a textile fiber during manufacture or applied to a fiber, fabric, or other textile item during processing or use to reduce its flammability.


Many procedures have been developed for assessing the flame resistance of textiles. The most common currently in use are detailed below:

Diagonal (45°) Flame Test

In this test for flame resistance, a specimen is mounted at a 45°angle and exposed to an open flame for a specific time. This test measures the ease of ignition and rate of burning of the samples.

Horizontal Flame Test

A test for flame resistance in which a specimen is mounted in a horizontal holder and exposed to an open flame for a specific time to measure burning rate and char-hole diameter.

Smoke Chamber Test

This method assesses the smoke generating characteristics of a sample due to pyrolysis and combustion by measuring the attenuation of a light beam by smoke accumulating in a closed chamber under controlled conditions. Results are expressed in terms of specific optical density.

Vertical Flame Test

A test for flame resistance in which a specimen is mounted in a vertical holder and exposed to an open flame for a specific time. The open flame is then extinguished and continued flaming time and char length of the sample are measured.


Medium weight plain- or twill-weave, slightly raised with pile.


  • A fabric made on a flat-knitting machine, as distinguished from tubular fabrics made on a circular-knitting machine. While tricot and milanese warp-knit fabrics (non-run) are knit in flat form, the trade uses the term flat-knit fabric to refer to weft-knits fabrics made on a flat machine, rather than warp-knit fabrics.
  • A term used in the underwear trade for plain stitch fabrics made on a circular-knitting machine. These fabrics have a flat surface and are often called flat-knit fabrics to differentiate them from ribbed-knit or Swiss rib fabrics. In this case, the term refers to the texture, not the type of machine on which the fabric was knit.


A method of cloth ornamentation in which adhesive is printed or coated on a fabric, and finely chopped fibers are applied all over by means of dusting, air-blasting, or electrostatic attraction. In flock printing, the fibers adhere only to the printed areas and are removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.ly napped fabric, usually of wool or cotton, but may be made of other fibers.


A one-carbon aldehyde, (CH2O), it is a colorless, pungent gas at room temperature. This compound is used primarily for disinfectant and preservative and in synthesizing other compounds and resins.


  • A general term for many machines used in yarn manufacturing such as the drawing frame, roving frame, and spinning frame.


A firm, durable, warp-faced cloth, showing a decided twill line, usually a 45°or 63°right-hand twill.


  • A generic term for various measurement instruments such as pressure or thickness gauges.
  • The number of needles per given distance in a knitting machine.
  • The thickness of the knitting needle in the shank and the hook.
  • The number of wales per inch in a knit fabric.
  • On spinning or twisting frames, the distance from the center of one spindle to the center of the next spindle in the same row.


A woven fabric characterized by a block or check effect produced by weaving in dyed yarns at fixed intervals in both the warp and the filling.


A method for measuring the breaking strength of a fabric sample by mounting the sample in the tensile tester so that only a part of the width of the specimen is gripped in the clamps.


An unfinished fabric just off the loom or knitting machine.


  • A fine, loosely woven fabric in leno weave made with dyed filling yarns and having a clipped dobby design.
  • A silk cord constructed by twisting together several twisted strands.


  • A flaw in fabric, especially a ribbed fabric, that occurs when warp threads show through the covering filling threads or when the threads have slipped leaving open spaces on either side.
  • A condition that occurs when the carpet backing shows through the pile.
  • A printing term referring to either poor cover where the background shade shows through the print,or to the “two-tone” appearance of a shade printed with incompatible dyes.


A term describing the plain background color against which a design is Created


Gsm is an acronym for grams per square metre, a standard measure of the weight of certain fabrics used commonly for comparing towels and bed linen.


  • A skein of yarn.
  • A standard length of slubbing, roving, or yarn. The length is specified by the yarn numbering system in use; e.g., cotton hanks have a length of 840 yards.
  • A term applied to slubbing or roving that indicates the yarn number (count); e.g., a 1.5 hank roving.


A property of certain fibers or yarns whereby they resist degradation at high temperature. Heat resistance may be an inherent property of the fiber-forming polymer or it may be imparted by additives or treatment during manufacture.


The process of conferring dimensional stability and often other desirable properties such as wrinkle resistance and improved heat resistance to manufactured fibers, yarns, and fabrics by means of either moist of dry heat.


A term to describe fiber or yarn heat-treated to reduce the tendency of the fiber to shrink or elongate under load at elevated temperature.


A coarse, durable bast fiber of Cannabis sativa found all over the world. Used primarily for twines, cordage, halyards, and tarred riggings.


A broken twill weave characterized by a balanced zigzag effect produced by having the rib run first to the right and then to the left for an equal number of threads.


A name for burlap used in the United Kingdom, India, and parts or Europe.


Manufactured, continuous filament fibers, having voids created by introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution or by melt spinning through specially designed spinnerets.


A term describing a medium-sized broken-check effect; the check is actually a four pointed star.


Originally, a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the Indigofera tinctoria plant. Most indigo dyes today are synthetic. They are frequently used on dungarees and denims.


As applied to textiles, flame resistance that derives from an essential characteristic of the fiber from which the textile is made


A padding or stiffening fabric used in garment manufacture to provide shape retention. Interlining is sandwiched between layers of fabric.


To produce an interlock knit, long and short needles are arranged alternately in both the dial and cylinder; the needles in the dial and cylinder are also positioned in direct alignment. When the long and short needles knit in alternate feeds in both needle housings, a fabric with a type of cross 1 x 1 rib effect is produced diameter and along the length of the individual filaments. Affects appearance of the dyed product and is a function of fiber, dye, dyeing process, and dyebath characteristics.


A scale distributed through AATCC that is used as a comparison standard to rate degrees of fading from 5 (negligible or no change) to 1 (severechange). The term is sometimes applied to any scale of quality in which 5 is excellent and 1 is poor.


Having the same physical properties in every direction in the plane of a fabric. It is related to the random distribution of fibers in nonwoven manufacture


A system of weaving that utilizes a highly versatile pattern mechanism to permit the production of large, intricate designs. The weave pattern is achieved by a series of punched cards. Each card perforation controls the action of one warp thread for the passage of one pick. The machine may carry a large number of cards, depending upon the design, because there is a separate card for each pick in the pattern. Jacquard weaving is used for tapestry, brocade, damask, brocatelle, figured necktie and dress fabrics, and some floor coverings. A similar device is used for the production of figured patterns on some knit goods.


This is a very fine but durable fabric mainly used as covers for our quilt and pillow range. Selected due to keeping a low migration of fibres and in particular, feathers meaning they will not escape though the fine weave unlike which other fabrics allow. This is featured highly in our duvet and bed protection lines.


  • A fabric used for suiting, draperies, or upholstery characterized by a series of faint stripes formed by dark, medium, and light yarns of the same color.
  • A term describing carpets having a faint striped effect.


A J-shaped holding device used in continuous operations to provide varying amounts of intermediate material storage such as in wet processing of fabrics and in tow production. The material is fed to the top and pleated to fill the long arm before being withdrawn from the short arm.


In tufting cut-pile carpet constructions, uneven cutting of the loops caused by poor adjustment of knives and hooks or excessive tension.


Cotton twill fabric, similar to denim, but lighter and finer, in a 2/1 weave for sportswear and linings.


  • A circular-knit or flat-knit fabric made with a plain stitch in which the loops intermesh in only one direction. As a result, the appearance of the face and the back of a jersey fabric is wholly different.
  • A tricot fabric made with a simple stitch, characterized by excellent drape and wrinkle recoveryproperties.


A device used to bulk yarns by introducing curls, coils, and loops that are formed by the action of a high velocity stream, usually of air or steam.


A high-temperature piece dyeing machine that circulates the dye liquor through a Venturi jet, thus imparting a driving force to move the fabric. The fabric, in rope form, is sewn together to form a loop.


A shuttleless loom that employs a jet of water or air to carry the filling yarn through the shed.


A machine in which fabric in open width-form is transferred repeatedly from one roller to another, passing each time through a bath of relatively small volume. Jigs are used for scouring, dyeing, bleaching and finishing.


A bast fiber used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing material for tufted carpets.


The flaggy lower end of jute fiber that is cut off in preparing jute for market. The fibers are 0.4 to 1 inch in length. Jute butts are used in twines and coarse bagging.


The weight in pounds of a spindle of 14,400 yards of yarn.

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